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Embryonic Stem Cells



Prospective Kidney Transplant Study (PKT)


Description: Blood and urine samples are collected from patients who received a kidney transplant at distinct time points (pre-transplant, time of transplant, 2-weeks post-tx, 1-month  post-tx, 3 months post-tx, 6 months post-tx, 1-year post-tx, and yearly thereafter) and at the time of clinically indicated biopsy. 

Goal: Patients who undergo kidney transplantation are at the highest risk of experiencing episodes of rejection in the first months following transplantation. By collecting both blood and urine samples multiple times in the early stages, as well as later stages, post-transplantation, we are capturing a better understanding of potential changes in biomarkers that can predict rejection episodes with the minimally invasive liquid biopsy techniques.  


Description: A prospective study collecting blood and urine from patients who develop BK  viremia and BK Nephritis post kidney transplantation.


Goal: Detection of serum BK virus levels can be an indication of progression of BK viremia (BKV)  and BK nephritis (BKN). However, the viral levels alone are an insufficient clinical tool for  diagnosing and treating BKV and BKN. Discovering biomarkers, sourced from liquid biopsies,  related to BK disease progression could drastically improve the clinical care of kidney transplant  patients with detectable BK virus levels.

BK Viremia Study (BK Study)


Indicated Biopsy Study (for Transplant patients)(IBS)/ Native Indicated Biopsy Study (N-IBS)

Description: Patients undergoing a renal biopsy, both transplant and native kidney patients, have both blood and urine samples collected at the time of the biopsy. These samples are analyzed with the biopsy results to look for a correlation between biomarkers and the biopsy diagnosis.


Goal: While currently considered the "gold-standard" for diagnosing kidney disease etiology,  kidney biopsies are an invasive procedure that can cause anxiety and pain for the patients that undergo them. Discovery and validation of biomarkers, sourced through liquid biopsies, could allow these more minimally invasive techniques to be utilized in clinical practice in place of a  traditional biopsy.

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